Back pain is one of the most common complaints of illness in people of working age, the elderly and senile. The human spine supports almost the entire weight of a person. It consists of 33-34 vertebrae, which are connected by intervertebral discs. Thanks to this connection, the vertebrae can move in relation to each other. The sacrum and coccyx are special parts of the spine. The sacrum is made up of five fused vertebrae and the coccyx is a rudimentary part of the spine that does not play a supporting role.

Pain can develop in any one or all three parts of the spine. Most of the time, pain occurs in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. The pain can be caused by disease and injury to the discs (disc protrusion, disc herniation) and intervertebral joints (joint osteoarthritis) or other conditions. The number of people with back pain has increased dramatically in recent years and decades, making this complaint the most common in the world.

Types of Back Pain

Acute back pain lasts up to six weeks. If it lasts up to 12 weeks, it is called subacute. Pain that persists after 12 weeks is called chronic pain.

Depending on the definition of certain causes of pain, there are:

  • nonspecific back pain;
  • specific back pain.

specific back pain

If the exact cause of the pain is known, it is called specific back pain.

Examples of specific pain include trauma, disc injuries, inflammation of the intervertebral joints (facet arthrosis).

Non-specific back pain

In some cases, back pain is classified as non-specific because it is not possible to identify the exact cause.

Nonspecific back pain can occur with inadequate posture or lack of physical activity.

Symptoms and complaints

Almost everyone has experienced a "lumbago" or mild back pain. "Back! " - a very common phrase, because the back is under heavy stress every day. Hours spent sitting in the office, bent over in front of the computer, lifting and carrying heavy objects or working in the garden in one position: minor back pains are an integral part of everyday life.

Back pain must be taken seriously. The reason for going to the doctor should be in situations where the pain does not go away for several days, when certain movements intensify the pain or when the pain radiates to the limb(s) and, especially, when there is a feeling of numbness.

Pain in the lower extremities is characteristic of compression of the spinal cord or its roots (eg, a herniated disc). The pain inherent to arthritic changes in the intervertebral joints is usually dull and localized. The nature and intensity of pain can vary greatly from person to person. Only a doctor can, based on complaints and symptoms, prescribe the necessary tests and treatments for the situation. Depending on the situation, the doctor may prescribe physical therapy, therapeutic exercises, or schedule surgery. With conservative treatment and during the postoperative rehabilitation period, it is very important to perform regular therapeutic exercises, as they train the muscles, stabilize the spine and reduce pain.

The most common causes of back pain

The spine or vertebral column is a complex structure made up of vertebrae, intervertebral discs and ligaments. Pain occurs when the interaction of these structures is disturbed. Typical reasons are:

a woman on the computer tends to have back pain

Stress causes back pain

Predominantly sedentary work and lack of physical activity in daily life lead to chronic tension in the back muscles and back pain in the absence of any illness.

Intervertebral discs act as biological shock absorbers and separate the vertebral bodies from each other. As the elasticity of the disc decreases, it begins to project into the lumen of the spinal canal (called a prolapse) and its height decreases. The latter negatively affects the work of the intervertebral joints, because their biomechanics are interrupted.

If the protruding part of the intervertebral disc presses on the sensitive nerve fibers, various sensory disturbances can occur in the innervated zone of the compressed nerve: pain, tingling, numbness, crawling, etc. If the motor nerve fibers responsible for working the muscles are compressed, the function of the innervated muscle is interrupted, leading to paralysis.

Postural disorders and weight lifting can lead to disruption of the anatomical relationships of spinal structures. In some cases, this leads to so-called intervertebral joint blockage, usually accompanied by severe pain. When the intervertebral joints are blocked, the back muscles are in a state of painful spasm. Thus, pain occurs not only in the blocked joint, but in the muscles. This drastically reduces the patients' physical activity down to the inability to walk. By blocking the intervertebral joints, effective spinal stabilization with medi-brackets helps to eliminate muscle spasm, localize pain and increase motor activity.

As we age, our spine gradually changes its structure, which is described by the general term "degenerative changes". In this case, the word "degenerative" means irreversible changes due to aging. Despite the irreversibility of the process, the use of orthotics helps to alleviate and improve the patient's condition.

Degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc imply a violation of its elasticity, reduced height and a protuberance in the spinal canal lumen. A decrease in disc height places greater stress on the intervertebral joints (facets).

The position of the spine, including the lumbar spine, is stabilized by working the muscles. The back muscles, abdominal muscles, and lateral abdominal wall muscles are involved in maintaining posture. The work of the muscles equalizes the load on the intervertebral discs and prevents excessive stretching of the tendon-ligament apparatus. Any pain syndromes negatively affect muscle function, which can lead to local hypertonia or, conversely, local weakness. As a result, spinal stabilization is impaired. This, in turn, causes an increase in the hypertonicity of some muscles, that is, a pathological vicious circle is formed.

Medical gymnastics helps to break the pathological circle, which allows restoring the symmetry of the tone of the muscles of the trunk.

The cause of back pain may be located not just in the trunk. For example, abnormal gait biomechanics can also cause back pain. This is mainly due to the loss of the foot's cushioning function in case of certain deformations. Another reason could be the difference in limb length, exceeding normal values.

The good news: in many cases, back pain goes away after a few weeks. Nonspecific pain is successfully treated with the help of mobilization techniques (manual therapy) and medication. With this pain, exercise therapy exercises are very effective.


Each of us can reduce back strain and prevent pain.

a woman is busy walking to prevent back pain

Beneficial exercises for the back.

There are strength training exercises that you can easily integrate into your daily routine. This complex was developed in conjunction with a specialist in physiotherapy exercises.

  • Regular exercise: Three 45-minute sessions a week will help improve your well-being, activate your immune system and help maintain muscle tone. Ideal lap sports are swimming and walking.
  • Balanced nutrition: proper nutrition is the prevention of excess weight, which puts an additional burden on the back.
  • Lift Weights Correctly: When lifting weights, you need to squat and lift the load by extending your legs, not your back muscles.
  • Carry weights correctly: carry heavy objects as close to your body as possible. Do not carry heavy things in one hand.
  • Be physically active: Sedentary workers should take every opportunity to increase their physical activity, such as climbing stairs better, getting up more often during the day, walking while talking on the phone, and taking a walk at lunchtime.

Ergonomic Workplace

a woman in an ergonomic workplace is relieved of back pain

Back pain usually occurs in the workplace. Sitting for an extended period in the wrong position can cause chronic muscle fatigue and subsequent pain. In addition, back pain is often caused by work associated with frequent bending and lifting.

Back Pain Treatment

There are many treatments for back pain. First, the attending physician chooses between conservative and surgical treatment. The latter is used when conservative treatment is ineffective and in many other cases.

the use of orthotics by a man for back pain

Physiotherapy and massage

Corrective gymnastics complexes and special back exercises should be performed under the supervision of a physician or physiotherapist until you have mastered the technique of performing each exercise. These sets of exercises are designed to train the strength of the torso musculature. The doctor chooses the exercises that best suit the patient. Massage and physical therapy may be prescribed to reduce pain intensity.

drug treatment

Drug therapy is prescribed to reduce pain and inflammation in the acute period. Taking pain relievers helps to eliminate the uncomfortable protective position the patient takes to relieve pain. Medication should only be taken as directed by a physician.

back exercises

Strong torso muscles protect the spine from adverse stress, reduce the likelihood of spasm and pain. To avoid back pain, you should exercise regularly to train your back muscles. Swimming or walking is also helpful.

The exercise set combines strength training and stretching exercises and is designed for 20 minutes. The ideal frequency of exercise is 2-3 times a week. Important: consult your healthcare professional before exercising.

Orthopedic products for the spine

Medical braces and braces for the spine are designed to treat muscle pain and spasms. Modern bandages and corsets effectively combat pain and increase physical activity. Depending on the diagnosis, devices with greater or lesser potential are used to stabilize the lumbar spine.

Higher lumbar straps and corsets and stiffer stabilizer elements better stabilize and support the spine in the desired position. The ability to move without pain and participate in social life eliminates the apparent weight of even the stiffest corsets.

Stylish Orthotics - A Practical Guide

woman in a corset for back pain

Can a spine orthosis be fashionable and stylish? You can get the answer by reading our brochure. Learn to take care of your health and dress appropriately at the same time.


Companies manufacture a large number of orthopedic appliances for the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. Hundreds of thousands of people around the world observe the high effectiveness of products for the treatment of back pain. At the same time, patients point to the high comfort and durability of the products. Thanks to the special design, all lumbar braces are easy to put on. Additional comfort in a sitting position is also provided by a design solution - a special pattern in the area of the groin creases.

Stabilization of the lumbar spine with orthopedic products is not accompanied by muscle weakness, let alone atrophy. As already mentioned, the ability to move without pain increases patients' physical activity. In addition, orthopedic support aims to eliminate excessive and/or painful mobility, and not immobilization, which is the reason for the functional inactivity of the muscles and their weakening.